Information on purification systems water treatment is pretty important today considering how necessary it is to make sure that the water supply in your home is pure, safe and clean of all microorganisms and other impurities. There are different purifications to clean and treat water today. Methods and techniques of treating water should depend on the total cost of a particular purification system and the type of water that is to be treated.
Pre treatment processes involve storage and containment of water as well the pumping of the water to the storage tanks from the source. Physical infrastructures should be made of proper materials so as to ensure there are no accidental contaminations etc.
One of the first stages in water treatment and purification is screening that removes all large particles, leaves, sticks and other trash. If the groundwater is deep then this stage is not really needed.
Natural and biological purification is done in reservoirs on the bank of rivers. Slow sand filters need this type of purification process. Hard water is treated by the process of pre-conditioning with soda-ash/sodium carbonate that makes the calcium carbonate precipitate out of the water. Pre-chlorination by using chlorine in the water to destroy bacteria and other micro-organisms is also done but the process is being discontinued in a large way considering the negative and adverse after effects of chlorine.
Flocculation is used to remove all the turbidity and color from the water making it clean and colorless. In this process, a precipitate is formed which can be removed easily. Suspended particles stick to one another forming larger particles as the water is stirred gently. The coagulated precipitate filters out the suspended material. Agents like aluminum hydroxide, iron III hydroxide and Poly DADMAC etc are used as coagulating agents. After flocculation sedimentation tanks are used where “sludge” forms at the floor of the tank that has to be removed and treated.
Filtration is another process whereby the suspended particles in the water are taken out. Rapid sand filters are very common where the water passes through vertically through the sand. A layer of anthracite coal or activated carbon lies above the sand removing all organic compounds. Particles usually get stuck between pores and adhere to the sand. Procedures like back flushing and back washing are used to dispose of embedded particles. The process of air scouring blows compressed air through the filter that helps in backwashing.
A purification systems water treatment that uses rapid gravity filters have a lot of advantages like the following:
* Liquids flow through these filters easily
* Smaller particles are removed than the ones removed by paper and sand filters
* They are strong and can stand pressure differences
* These can be reused and cleaned
Several purification systems water treatment techniques are generally combined to work together in order to have efficient and successful purification. Disinfection is also done by filtering out microbes that are harmful. This is done by adding chemicals to kill pathogens and other dangerous bacteria, viruses etc